Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.  If you broadcast our audio commentaries please consider a recurring donation to Black Agenda Report.

The Field Negroes’ Agenda: Reclamation, Reparations and Repatriation

  • Sharebar
    Printer-friendly versionPrinter-friendly version

    by Mark P. Fancher

    The author believes African liberation and the fall of U.S. imperialism can be achieved by triumph of the “Three R’s”: Reclamation, Reparations and Repatriation. In terms of day to day struggle, that translates as “pressuring the U.S. military out of Africa, assisting on the return of Africa’s land and mineral wealth to Africans, and supporting the unity of a truly independent African continent.”


    The Field Negroes’ Agenda: Reclamation, Reparations and Repatriation

    by Mark P. Fancher

    Malcolm X’s beloved Field Negroes know that the U.S. carries a fatal cancer that, if not carved from its torso threatens the survival of oppressed humanity.”

    Injustice is difficult to disguise, and oppressed people will instinctively struggle against it. But the oppressed are sometimes duped by the oppressor into allowing their resistance to be channeled into a “safe” political arena where it can be monitored, manipulated and ultimately exhausted.

    Malcolm X questioned the logic of submitting petitions for justice to the oppressor’s institutions. He said: “We need to expand the civil rights struggle to a higher level – to the level of human rights. Whenever you are in a civil rights struggle, whether you know it or not, you are confining yourself to the jurisdiction of Uncle Sam… When you take your case to Washington, D.C., you’re taking it to the criminal who’s responsible; it’s like running from the wolf to the fox. They’re all in cahoots together.”

    Some have been so persuaded that their only avenue for resistance is electoral politics that they have come to believe that electing a socialist to office is “radical.” However, in any other context, the term “radical” has a very different meaning. For example, radical surgery may mean the complete removal of a malignancy. So while the U.S. may appear to be healthy, Malcolm X’s beloved Field Negroes know that the U.S. carries a fatal cancer that, if not carved from its torso threatens the survival of oppressed humanity.

    Regardless of the many political agendas of the modern era that are designed to fit the oppressor’s political paradigm, many Field Negroes and First Nations warriors remain aloof from bourgeois politics and refuse to forget the U.S. Empire’s original and fatal sins of genocide, territorial theft and slavery. In these strugglers’ quest for genuine justice, they consciously or intuitively make a continuing stubborn demand for a full and complete restoration of the status quo ante. In other words, they know their genuine liberation requires the “Three R’s” – Reclamation by indigenous peoples of their stolen territories; Reparations for the ordeal experienced by those kidnapped and held in bondage and their descendants; and Repatriation, or a social, political and economic (if not physical) return to Africa.

    In the age of Obama, among those who both love and despise this President, the Field Negroes who continue to speak of reparations and repatriation are marginalized even more than ever. Their agenda is dismissed as “impossible,” “impractical,” or “still-born.” Nevertheless, the logic of the Three R’s is undeniable. When posed as an academic question, the unavoidable response to a query about the appropriate remedy for a people who have had their land stolen is simply for the thieves to return it. If people have been forced to labor without pay and have been otherwise abused for generations thereafter, then it is only just that they be paid. If a population has been forced to relocate, then the suggestion that they be allowed to return to their homeland is obvious.

    The unavoidable response to a query about the appropriate remedy for a people who have had their land stolen is simply for the thieves to return it.”

    The Three R’s are characterized as “impractical” by the oppressor because granting any of the three remedies to the extent necessary to fully compensate for historical crimes will cause the collapse of the U.S. Empire. For the capitalists, it is simply unthinkable for descendants of illegal European settlers to, among other things, return all U.S. territories to indigenous populations. Yet, during the 1830s, the sudden, forced mass relocation to Oklahoma of the Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Seminoles and Chickasaw from their generations-old homes in the southeastern U.S. was never regarded by the oppressor as “impractical.” It is all a matter of perspective, and it is clearly reflected in laws, customs and practices that manifest white supremacy, capitalist power and arrogance.

    The diversion of resistance away from the Three R’s has always been a product of a calculated legal and political framework that tilts always in the direction of the oppressor. As far back as 1532, Spain’s lawyer, Franciscus de Victoria counseled that America’s indigenous peoples “were true owners [of American territories] before the Spaniards came among them, both from the public and private point of view.” Consequently, Spain could not claim that it had title to the land by virtue of “discovery” or divine right. However, ownership could be secured by conquest resulting from a “just war,” or by treaties. This is remarkable because notwithstanding the high level of civilization in the Americas before Europe even knew there was a western hemisphere, there was an implicit presumption that not only did the First Nations lack customs and/or laws governing the use and occupation of land, but also that they were unworthy even of consultation. After the legal stage was set for European settlers to “lawfully” seize American territory, there was no turning back.

    Likewise with respect to reparations, some institutions flirted with the idea in decades past and designed affirmative action programs with the objective of compensating to some extent for past discrimination suffered by descendants of enslaved Africans. However when Allan Bakke, a white male medical school applicant, challenged such notions in a 1978 case against the University of California-Davis, the U.S. Supreme Court used its power and authority to derail the reparations train. The court’s opinion said:

    “…[T]he purpose of helping certain groups whom the faculty of the Davis Medical School perceived as victims of ‘societal discrimination’ does not justify a classification that imposes disadvantages upon persons like [Allan Bakke], who bear no responsibility for whatever harm the beneficiaries of the special admissions program are thought to have suffered. To hold otherwise would be to convert a remedy heretofore reserved for violations of legal rights into a privilege that all institutions throughout the Nation could grant at their pleasure to whatever groups are perceived as victims of societal discrimination. That is a step we have never approved.”

    The court went on to hold that affirmative action in universities can be constitutional, but only if it is used for the purpose of achieving “diversity.”

    The diversion of resistance away from the Three R’s has always been a product of a calculated legal and political framework that tilts always in the direction of the oppressor.”

    Finally, the oppressor has long known that repatriation to Africa has long held appeal for the followers of Paul Cuffee, Marcus Garvey, W.E.B. Du Bois, Paul Robeson, Kwame Ture, Bob Marley and many others. Consequently, the imperialists publicly dismiss Africa as a wasteland, and many in the diaspora believe these lies and want nothing to do with their ancestral homeland. At the same time, the oppressor has quietly made its own way to Africa where its bloody hands are firmly locked on Africa’s abundant natural resources, and deadly military force is used to kill anyone who dares to try to put the continent’s wealth under African control.

    The empire is nevertheless vulnerable in Africa because its very survival depends on its control of the continent’s oil, land and valuable minerals. This fact has great significance for America’s oppressed communities because oppressed populations are more likely to reclaim stolen territories or receive reparations if they first win a victory over the oppressor, reverse the power relationship and force the desired remedy. It is in Africa where a critical victory can be won and the stage set for achieving justice in America.

    Repatriation can be the most vital of the “Three R’s” if conceptually it is neither limited to physical relocation nor pursued as a means of romantic escapism. It must instead involve the construction of powerful trans-Atlantic social, political and economic relationships between parties both in the U.S. and in Africa who recognize: the implications of Zimbabwe’s land reclamation efforts; the significance of a recent call by the National Union of Metalworkers of South Africa for socialism; the threat posed by the ever-unfolding militarization of Africa through U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM); and that a union of African states is meaningless if member countries function as neo-colonial puppets of imperialism.

    If Field Negroes want real liberation and justice, they must avoid “running from the wolf to the fox.” By pressuring the U.S. military out of Africa; assisting on the return of Africa’s land and mineral wealth to Africans; and supporting the unity of a truly independent African continent, America’s African population will do much to diminish imperialist dominance globally, and also increase the leverage, if not power of America’s oppressed populations as they assert claims for land, money and resources owed by the U.S. Empire.

    Mark P. Fancher is an attorney and frequent contributor to Black Agenda Report. He can be contacted at

    Share this

    -- [...]???????????? -

    [...]???????????? - ????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????????????.[...]
    ### 칭찬합시다 - 사용안함 - 박종범 영산 회장님 많은 후원 감사드립니다!
    ...etcetera. - Catalog al afacerilor
    ::대학원 연구실 소개:: - 김윤희교수의 ë””ì§€í„¸í†µì‹ ì—°êµ¬ì‹¤ 소개
    [***] [***]
    [I Agree, Let Me Go!]
    11/3/2014 4:38
    12 Things You’re Doing Wrong on OKCupid
    2012년도 수치계산 게시판 - 수치컴퓨팅 및 응용 ìˆ™ì œ2 openGL포함 소스코드
    2013_winter mechmath - [중요] 이준상 교수님 홈페이지에서 서식 다운받으십시오.
    a podcast about sex
    ‘Pippi Longstocking’ Studio On Tami Erin Adult Picture
    adult performer Siri and International Mr. Leather follow-up
    Apsilankyti vartotojo tinklapyje
    Author\'s Website
    Bekijk de homepage
    Bekijk Webpagina
    Besøg brugerens webside
    Besøg Web siden
    Besøk innleggers hjemmeside
    Besøk Medlemmets Nettside
    Besök användarens hemsida
    Buy Real Cheap Facebook Likes
    Buy Vine Likes One Can Hire Providers To Get Help In Buying Facebook Likes
    chicago sex podcast
    chicago sex podcast -
    chicago sex podcast (not verified)
    chicago sex podcast’s avatar
    Chicago Sex Positive Podcast
    child porn
    child porn\'s Gravatar
    Clemmies Homepage besuchen
    Click here to visit this page
    Close this Frame.
    comedian and attending sex addict classes
    Content URL
    Сайт автора
    Посетить сайт автора
    Посетить Web Page автора
    Посетете сайта на потребителя
    괌여행팁 - 9ì›”10일부터 웨스틴 ìžìœ ì—¬í–‰ 상품을 이용시 ë¬´ë™ë ¥ í•´ì–‘ìŠ¤í¬ì¸ ê°€ 무료로...
    êµì œ > 사진첩 - 2014ë…„ 4ì›” 야외예배2 - 동명초등학교
    êµíšŒì¼ì • - 2013ë…„ 05ì›” 교회 주요행사 안내
    Ecampus -
    Eric Barry Chicago
    Eric Barry Chicago sex
    Eric Barry Chicago sex offender
    eric barry is gay
    Facebook\'s Black Market Problem Revealed - (4个脚印) (not verified) guy porn guy porn - guy porn (не проверено) guy porn (not verified) Says : sucks trackbacked on October 26, 2014, 11:41 am
    free porn
    free pussy
    free sex
    free xxx porn
    free xxx porn -
    free xxx porn(free xxx porn)
    Fugazi Full Disclosure Lyrics
    Full Disclosure
    Full Disclosure podcast
    Full Disclosure Podcast with Eric Barry
    Full Disclosure website
    Full Disclosure: Chicago\'s Sex Positive Podcast - Chica[...]
    Full Disclosure: Chicago\'s Sex Positive Podcast - Chicago-based podcast dedicated to sex positive news, interviews, and comedy with comedian and writer Eric Barry.
    Full Disclosure: Chicago\'s Sex Positive Podcast - Chicago-based podcast dedicated to sex positive news, interviews, and comedy with comedian and writer Eric Barry. - Backlinks on ParaKOSTer - []
    Getting Chance To Buy Facebook Likes Cheap
    Hendericks\'s homepage
    here you go
    Holy Porn Poachers - Superman! Axel Braun Shows Sues 098 Superman XXX Thieves - 7
    Home Page
    Home Page Home Page
    Homepage besuchen
    Homepage des Autors besuchen
    How Facebook Likes Get Bought And Sold
    How To Buy Facebook Likes With Cheapest Price
    How To Find Authentic Jobs Classifieds
    성경 Q&A - 대한민국 \"최초\" 프리미엄 릴 ㄱ ㅔ임 ì „ë¬¸ 싸 ã…‡ ㅣ트 릴넷
    Επίσκεψη στην ιστοσελίδα του Συγγραφέα
    한방상식 - 반만년 역사속의 민간요법이 다 과학-ì•„ëª¨ë ˆí¼ì‹œí”½ ê¸°ìˆ ì—°êµ¬ì› 한방과학팀 박준성(36) 연구원
    IL Sexual Predator
    is not accepting his apology
    Jwinpartners\' announces - [Announcement] Jwinpartner\'s 5th Anniversary
    Käy lähettäjän sivustolla
    Lesbo Retro Adult Retrospective Tonight At IXFF Film Fest In SF
    Link Anchor
    listen to the interview
    LiveCamNetwork Nets XBiz Nomination
    Longwell guy porn
    Miss Delaware Unfairly Outed By GirlsDoPorn aka Bubblegum Casting, A Shady Modeling Agency
    moment - 131125 tvN 制作发表会
    my sex-positive podcast called Full Disclosure
    Näytä web-sivu
    Naar website
    Nano-Photonics, KAIST - Baking 완료. SEM 사용재개
    notice - ★生日献礼★ 李东海29岁生日门板 3P
    انتقل الى صفحة المرسل
    صفحة الوب
    Odwied stron autora
    Odwiedź stronę autora
    ON 독서나눔방 - \'관계의 힘\'을 읽ê³
    Open website
    Página Principal
    Pastor Choi\'s Video Message - 2014.11.23 - 함께 나누며 감사하라(Thank the Lord with sharing)
    Persönliche Website von »NZachary« besuchen
    Persönliche Website von »PTVXR« besuchen
    photo - 140530 B.A.P 2014 L.O.E in Singapore Press Conference
    Podcast for young gay boys
    podcast host
    Pokaż stronę
    Positions Available - Immigration&Recruiting company looking Administrative manager
    Postati ofertele dvs. speciale aici 2009-09-28
    Pretty Emma Watson Pictures And Videos
    Read More
    Rough Sex Videos
    sex podcas
    sex podcast
    sex podcast chicago
    Sexual Openness
    Site web Site web
    Strona WWW
    Sunday Sermon - The Naming of 12 Apostles
    Teleteria has been the leader while in the
    The comments are worth reading - members of the leather community, including people who were in attendance, some of whom were working the event and dealt with Mr. Barry personally have much to say.
    Tips To Help You Buy Proper Facebook Likes
    Vaata liikme veebilehte
    Vedi la pagina Web
    Ver Página Web
    Ver Páxina Web
    Video And chatsex Chat ChatSex Shows!
    View Original
    View Web Page
    Visa WEB-sidan
    Visit Podcast Home Page
    Visit posters website
    Visit poster\'s website
    Visit Website
    Visita il mio sito
    Visita sito
    Visitar a homepage do Usuário
    Visitar a página do Utilizador
    Visitar a página na web do utilizador
    Visitar o website do usuário
    Visitar Site
    Visitar Sitio
    Visitar sitio web del autor
    Visiter la Page Web
    Visiter le site
    Visiter le site web de l\'utilisateur
    Visiter le site web du posteur
    Viziteaza site-ul autorului
    Vizitează site-ul autorului
    Vizualizare Pagina Web
    Web Site
    Weboldal megktekintése
    Website bekijken
    Website dieses Benutzers besuchen
    Webstranu posjetiti
    When Should I Buy Facebook Likes?
    Why DoN\'t You To Use A Free Webhost
    Why Schools Are BuyingXxx Web Addresses
    Why Universities Are BuyingXxx Web Addresses
    Worldwide Adult Legislation Could Boost British Sector (Wired UK)
    www.fdpod.… favicons
    xxx porn
    young teen sluts
    your company is still a business
    Zobraziť autorové WWW stránky
    Zobraziť autorove WWW stránky
    Zobrazit autorovi WWW stránky
    Zobrazit autorovy WWW stránky